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Apollo The Sun God

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Apollo The Sun God

17/abr/ - Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Apollo and the Continents. Apollo, the Sun God Griechische Kunst, Griechische Mythologie, Christentum, Alte Meister. Apollo as sun-god, i.e. Sol (Helius), Titan. Begleite Sonnengott Apollo in eine epische Spielewelt und entdecke auf dem Weg zum Slot-Olymp kolossale Gewinnchancen. Schau dir unsere Auswahl an the sun god apollo an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten, handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops zu finden. Many translated example sentences containing "Sonnengott Apollo" – English-​German The ceiling depicts Apollo and Luna, sun god and moon goddess, [ ]. Begleite Sonnengott Apollo in eine epische Spielewelt und entdecke auf dem Weg zum Slot-Olymp kolossale Gewinnchancen. Apollo, Greek God, Greek Gods, Greek Mythology, Mythology. Embed this image on your website or blog NOW! Just drop in the embed code below and you're. Greek Mythology is the set of stories about the gods, goddesses, heroes and rituals of Ancient Greeks. Here, Coronis was seduced by the Olympian god Apollo. Apollo The Sun God Apollo The Sun God Apollo The Sun God

Crows are black ever since. After a while, Apollo fell in love with Marpessa. Her lover Idas had already went through hell to get her, even risking his own life while abducting her.

Zeus stopped this fight and gave Marpessa the chance to choose. She chose Idas — since she feared that Apollo would stop loving her after she grows old.

In an attempt to seduce her, Apollo gifted Cassandra , the Trojan princess, the gift of prophecy.

However, afterward she backed out of the deal. Ever since, nobody believes her — even though her prophecies are always right. She asked from her father, the river god Peneus , to be transformed into something else.

And just as Apollo was about to embrace her, she was — into a laurel tree. The god swore to love her forever and, ever since, he wears a laurel wreath as a token of his unhappy love.

After Cyparissus accidentally killed his pet-deer — which was gifted to him by Apollo — he asked his divine lover to let him be sorrowful forever.

So, Apollo unwillingly transformed Cyparissus into a cypress tree. The story of Hyacinthus is even sadder. He was a favorite of Apollo and he dearly loved the god back.

To stop the battling gods and the terror created by their battle, Apollo intervened and stopped the duel between them. When Zeus suggested that Dionysus defeat the Indians in order to earn a place among the gods, Dionysus declared war against the Indians and travelled to India along with his army of Bacchantes and satyrs.

Among the warriors was Aristaeus , Apollo's son. Apollo armed his son with his own hands and gave him a bow and arrows and fitted a strong shield to his arm.

During the war between the sons of Oedipus , Apollo favored Amphiaraus , a seer and one of the leaders in the war.

Though saddened that the seer was fated to be doomed in the war, Apollo made Amphiaraus' last hours glorious by "lighting his shield and his helm with starry gleam".

When Hypseus tried to kill the hero by a spear, Apollo directed the spear towards the charioteer of Amphiaraus instead. Then Apollo himself replaced the charioteer and took the reins in his hands.

He deflected many spears and arrows away them. At last when the moment of departure came, Apollo expressed his grief with tears in his eyes and bid farewell to Amphiaraus, who was soon engulfed by the Earth.

During the gigantomachy , Apollo killed the giant Ephialtes by shooting him in his eyes. He also killed Porphyrion , the king of giants, using his bow and arrows.

Otis and Ephialtes, the twin giants were together called the Aloadae. These giants are said to have grown every year by one cubit in breadth and three cubits in height.

Olympus by piling up mountains. They also threatened to change land into sea and sea into land. Some say they even dared to seek the hand of Hera and Artemis in marriage.

Angered by this, Apollo killed them by shooting arrows at them. He sent a deer between them. As they tried to kill it with their javelins, they accidentally stabbed each other and died.

Phorbas was a savage giant king of Phlegyas who was described as having swine like features. He wished to plunder Delphi for its wealth.

He seized the roads to Delphi and started harassing the pilgrims. He captured the old people and children and sent them to his army to hold them for ransom.

And he challenged the young and sturdy men to a match of boxing, only to cut their heads off when they would get defeated by him.

He hung the chopped off heads to an oak tree. Finally, Apollo came to put an end to this cruelty. He entered a boxing contest with Phorbas and killed him with a single blow.

In the first Olympic games , Apollo defeated Ares and became the victor in wrestling. He outran Hermes in the race and won first place.

Apollo divides months into summer and winter. During his absence, Delphi was under the care of Dionysus , and no prophecies were given during winters.

Molpadia and Parthenos were the sisters of Rhoeo , a former lover of Apollo. One day, they were put in charge of watching their father's ancestral wine jar but they fell asleep while performing this duty.

While they were asleep, the wine jar was broken by the swines their family kept. When the sisters woke up and saw what had happened, they threw themselves off a cliff in fear of their father's wrath.

Apollo, who was passing by, caught them and carried them to two different cities in Chersonesus, Molpadia to Castabus and Parthenos to Bubastus.

He turned them into goddesses and they both received divine honors. Molpadia's name was changed to Hemithea upon her deification.

Prometheus was the titan who was punished by Zeus for stealing fire. He was bound to a rock, where each day an eagle was sent to eat Prometheus' liver, which would then grow back overnight to be eaten again the next day.

Seeing his plight, Apollo pleaded Zeus to release the kind Titan, while Artemis and Leto stood behind him with tears in their eyes.

Zeus, moved by Apollo's words and the tears of the goddesses, finally sent Heracles to free Prometheus. Leukatas was believed to be a white colored rock jutting out from the island of Leukas into the sea.

It was present in the sanctuary of Apollo Leukates. A leap from this rock was believed to have put an end to the longings of love.

Once, Aphrodite fell deeply in love with Adonis , a young man of great beauty who was later accidentally killed by a boar.

Heartbroken, Aphrodite wandered looking for the rock of Leukas. When she reached the sanctuary of Apollo in Argos, she confided in him her love and sorrow.

Apollo then brought her to the rock of Leukas and asked her to throw herself from the top of the rock. She did so and was freed from her love.

When she sought for the reason behind this, Apollo told her that Zeus, before taking another lover, would sit on this rock to free himself from his love to Hera.

Another tale relates that a man named Nireus, who fell in love with the cult statue of Athena, came to the rock and jumped in order relieve himself.

After jumping, he fell into the net of a fisherman in which, when he was pulled out, he found a box filled with gold.

He fought with the fisherman and took the gold, but Apollo appeared to him in the night in a dream and warned him not to appropriate gold which belonged to others.

It was an ancestral custom among the Leukadians to fling a criminal from this rock every year at the sacrifice performed in honor of Apollo for the sake of averting evil.

However, a number of men would be stationed all around below rock to catch the criminal and take him out of the borders in order to exile him from the island.

Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology. Daphne was a nymph whose parentage varies.

She scorned Apollo's advances and ran away from him. When Apollo chased her in order to persuade her, she changed herself into a laurel tree.

According to other versions, she cried for help during the chase, and Gaea helped her by taking her in and placing a laurel tree in her place.

The myth explains the origin of the laurel and connection of Apollo with the laurel and its leaves, which his priestess employed at Delphi. The leaves became the symbol of victory and laurel wreaths were given to the victors of the Pythian games.

Apollo is said to have been the lover of all nine Muses , and not being able to choose one of them, decided to remain unwed.

Cyrene , was a Thessalian princess whom Apollo loved. In her honor, he built the city Cyrene and made her its ruler.

She was later granted longevity by Apollo who turned her into a nymph. The couple had two sons, Aristaeus , and Idmon. Evadne was a nymph daughter of Poseidon and a lover of Apollo.

She bore him a son, Iamos. During the time of the childbirth, Apollo sent Eileithyia , the goddess of childbirth to assist her.

Rhoeo , a princess of the island of Naxos was loved by Apollo. Out of affection for her, Apollo turned her sisters into goddesses. On the island Delos she bore Apollo a son named Anius.

Not wanting to have the child, she entrusted the infant to Apollo and left. Apollo raised and educated the child on his own. Ourea, a daughter of Poseidon , fell in love with Apollo when he and Poseidon were serving the Trojan king Laomedon.

They both united on the day the walls of Troy were built. Ileus was very dear to Apollo. Thero , daughter of Phylas , a maiden as beautiful as the moonbeams, was loved by the radiant Apollo, and she loved him in return.

By their union, she became mother of Chaeron, who was famed as "the tamer of horses". He later built the city Chaeronea.

Hyrie or Thyrie was the mother of Cycnus. Apollo turned both the mother and son into swans when they jumped into a lake and tried to kill themselves.

An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilleus , and Apollo avenged his death by killing Achilles.

After the sack of Troy, Hecuba was taken to Lycia by Apollo. Coronis , was daughter of Phlegyas , King of the Lapiths. While pregnant with Asclepius , Coronis fell in love with Ischys , son of Elatus and slept with him.

When Apollo found out about her infidelity through his prophetic powers, he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis.

Apollo rescued the baby by cutting open Koronis' belly and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise. He used his powers to conceal her pregnancy from her father.

Later, when Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi , where he was raised by a priestess.

Hyacinth or Hyacinthus was one of Apollo's favorite lovers. The pair was practicing throwing the discus when a discus thrown by Apollo was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly.

Apollo is said to be filled with grief. The festival Hyacinthia was a national celebration of Sparta, which commemorated the death and rebirth of Hyacinthus.

Another male lover was Cyparissus , a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth.

Cyparissus was so saddened by its death that he asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk.

Admetus , the king of Pherae, was also Apollo's lover. The romantic nature of their relationship was first described by Callimachus of Alexandria, who wrote that Apollo was "fired with love" for Admetus.

He would also make cheese and serve it to Admetus. His domestic actions caused embarrassment to his family. Oh how often his sister Diana blushed at meeting her brother as he carried a young calf through the fields!

When Admetus wanted to marry princess Alcestis , Apollo provided a chariot pulled by a lion and a boar he had tamed. This satisfied Alcestis' father and he let Admetus marry his daughter.

Further, Apollo saved the king from Artemis' wrath and also convinced the Moirai to postpone Admetus' death once. Branchus , a shepherd, one day came across Apollo in the woods.

Captivated by the god's beauty, he kissed Apollo. Apollo requited his affections and wanting to reward him, bestowed prophetic skills on him. His descendants, the Branchides, were an influential clan of prophets.

Apollo sired many children, from mortal women and nymphs as well as the goddesses. His children grew up to be physicians, musicians, poets, seers or archers.

Many of his sons founded new cities and became kings. They were all usually very beautiful. Asclepius is the most famous son of Apollo.

His skills as a physician surpassed that of Apollo's. Zeus killed him for bringing back the dead, but upon Apollo's request, he was resurrected as a god.

Aristaeus was placed under the care of Chiron after his birth. He became the god of beekeeping, cheese making, animal husbandry and more.

He was ultimately given immortality for the benefits he bestowed upon the humanity. The Corybantes were spear-clashing, dancing demigods.

The sons of Apollo who participated in the Trojan War include the Trojan princes Hector and Troilus , as well as Tenes , the king of Tenedos , all three of whom were killed by Achilles over the course of the war.

Apollo fathered 3 daughters, Apollonis , Borysthenis and Cephisso , who formed a group of minor Muses, the "Musa Apollonides".

They were nicknamed Nete, Mese and Hypate after the highest, middle and lowest strings of his lyre. Anius , Pythaeus and Ismenus lived as high priests.

Most of them were trained by Apollo himself. He also had a son named Chrysorrhoas who was a mechanic artist. Apollo turned Parthenos into a constellation after her early death.

Additionally, Apollo fostered and educated Chiron , the centaur who later became the greatest teacher and educated many demigods, including Apollo's sons.

Apollo also fostered Carnus , the son of Zeus and Europa. Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.

Sinope , a nymph, was approached by the amorous Apollo. She made him promise that he would grant to her whatever she would ask for, and then cleverly asked him to let her stay a virgin.

Apollo kept his promise and went back. Bolina was admired by Apollo but she refused him and jumped into the sea. To avoid her death, Apollo turned her into a nymph and let her go.

Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos , which was then named after her.

Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses.

Cassandra , was a daughter of Hecuba and Priam. Apollo wished to court her. Cassandra promised to return his love on one condition - he should give her the power to see the future.

Apollo fulfilled her wish, but she went back on her word and rejected him soon after. Angered that she broke her promise, Apollo cursed her that even though she would see the future, no one would ever believe her prophecies.

Hestia , the goddess of the hearth, rejected both Apollo's and Poseidon's marriage proposals and swore that she would always stay unmarried.

Artemis as the sister of Apollo, is thea apollousa , that is, she as a female divinity represented the same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity.

In the pre-Hellenic period, their relationship was described as the one between husband and wife, and there seems to have been a tradition which actually described Artemis as the wife of Apollo.

However, this relationship was never sexual but spiritual, [] which is why they both are seen being unmarried in the Hellenic period. Artemis, like her brother, is armed with a bow and arrows.

She is the cause of sudden deaths of women. She also is the protector of the young, especially girls. Though she has nothing to do with oracles, music or poetry, she sometimes led the female chorus on Olympus while Apollo sang.

Artemis Daphnaia had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi. Hecate , the goddess of witchcraft and magic, is the chthonic counterpart of Apollo.

They both are cousins, since their mothers - Leto and Asteria - are sisters. One of Apollo's epithets, Hecatos , is the masculine form of Hecate, and both the names mean "working from afar".

While Apollo presided over the prophetic powers and magic of light and heaven, Hecate presided over the prophetic powers and magic of night and chthonian darkness.

Hecate is the goddess of crossroads and Apollo is the god and protector of streets. The oldest evidence found for Hecate's worship is at Apollo's temple in Miletos.

There, Hecate was taken to be Apollo's sister counterpart in the absence of Artemis. As a deity of knowledge and great power, Apollo was seen being the male counterpart of Athena.

Being Zeus' favorite children, they were given more powers and duties. Apollo and Athena often took up the role as protectors of cities, and were patrons of some of the important cities.

Athena was the principle goddess of Athens , Apollo was the principle god of Sparta. As patrons of arts, Apollo and Athena were companions of the Muses , the former a much more frequent companion than the latter.

In the Trojan war, as Zeus' executive, Apollo is seen holding the aegis like Athena usually does. In Aeschylus ' Oresteia trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia to proceed forward with the Trojan war.

Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes , is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus , her lover.

Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes or Furies female personifications of vengeance.

Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage.

They invade his temple, and he drives them away. He says that the matter should be brought before Athena. Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's supplicant.

Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules in favor of Apollo. The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks.

On the occasion of a pestilence in the s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".

After the battle of Actium , which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.

The chief Apollonian festival was the Pythian Games held every four years at Delphi and was one of the four great Panhellenic Games.

Also of major importance was the Delia held every four years on Delos. Athenian annual festivals included the Boedromia , Metageitnia , [] Pyanepsia , and Thargelia.

Spartan annual festivals were the Carneia and the Hyacinthia. Thebes every nine years held the Daphnephoria. Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow.

Other attributes of his included the kithara an advanced version of the common lyre , the plectrum and the sword. Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod , representing his prophetic powers.

The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi. The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games.

The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos. Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves , dolphins, roe deer , swans , cicadas symbolizing music and song , ravens , hawks , crows Apollo had hawks and crows as his messengers , [] snakes referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy , mice and griffins , mythical eagle—lion hybrids of Eastern origin.

Homer and Porphyry wrote that Apollo had a hawk as his messenger. As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, — BCE.

According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention an Asia Minor god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars.

In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves possibly a folk etymology.

In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus , god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder.

The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo at winter left for Hyperborea , he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus.

This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean.

This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony. Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance.

Greek art puts into Apollo the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined. The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought.

The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity.

The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment.

The statues of Apollo embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world. The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions from the almost static formal Kouros type in early archaic period , to the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late archaic period.

In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a method created by Polykleitos.

Finally Praxiteles seems to be released from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a mixture of naturalism with stylization.

The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy of Thales to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras.

Thales searched for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older animism.

This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified forms. Pythagoras believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.

His ideas had a great influence on post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the esthetic perfection.

In classical Greece, Anaxagoras asserted that a divine reason mind gave order to the seeds of the universe, and Plato extended the Greek belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms ideai , "ideas".

The forms on Earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas. The artists in Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a mixture of naturalism with stylization.

The Greek sculptors considered the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the sensible with the intellectual.

Kouros male youth is the modern term given to those representations of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in Greece. This type served certain religious needs and was first proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo.

The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason. The sculptors had a clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body, dignity, and youthful happiness.

When they tried to depict the most abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the unchanging gods. Apollo was the immortal god of ideal balance and order.

In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period — BC , the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as lifeless masses, but as being full of life.

The Greeks maintained, until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the statues are in some sense alive.

This embodies the belief that the image was somehow the god or man himself. The statue is the "thing in itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an intellectual eternity.

According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon master was named Daedalus , and in his statues the limbs were freed from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move.

It is considered that he created also the New York kouros , which is the oldest fully preserved statue of Kouros type, and seems to be the incarnation of the god himself.

The animistic idea as the representation of the imaginative reality, is sanctified in the Homeric poems and in Greek myths, in stories of the god Hephaestus Phaistos and the mythic Daedalus the builder of the labyrinth that made images which moved of their own accord.

This kind of art goes back to the Minoan period, when its main theme was the representation of motion in a specific moment.

The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo, may be two figures from the Ionic sanctuary on the island of Delos.

Such statues were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these were found at the sanctuaries of Apollo with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoios , Boeotia alone.

Ranking from the very few bronzes survived to us is the masterpiece bronze Piraeus Apollo. It was found in Piraeus , the harbour of Athens.

The statue originally held the bow in its left hand, and a cup of pouring libation in its right hand.

It probably comes from north-eastern Peloponnesus. The emphasis is given in anatomy, and it is one of the first attempts to represent a kind of motion, and beauty relative to proportions, which appear mostly in post-Archaic art.

The statue throws some light on an artistic centre which, with an independently developed harder, simpler and heavier style, restricts Ionian influence in Athens.

Finally, this is the germ from which the art of Polykleitos was to grow two or three generations later. At the beginning of the Classical period , it was considered that beauty in visible things as in everything else, consisted of symmetry and proportions.

The artists tried also to represent motion in a specific moment Myron , which may be considered as the reappearance of the dormant Minoan element.

The Greek sculptors tried to clarify it by looking for mathematical proportions, just as they sought some reality behind appearances.

Polykleitos in his Canon wrote that beauty consists in the proportion not of the elements materials , but of the parts, that is the interrelation of parts with one another and with the whole.

It seems that he was influenced by the theories of Pythagoras. The famous Apollo of Mantua and its variants are early forms of the Apollo Citharoedus statue type, in which the god holds the cithara in his left arm.

The type is represented by neo-Attic Imperial Roman copies of the late 1st or early 2nd century, modelled upon a supposed Greek bronze original made in the second quarter of the 5th century BCE, in a style similar to works of Polykleitos but more archaic.

The Apollo held the cythara against his extended left arm, of which in the Louvre example, a fragment of one twisting scrolling horn upright remains against his biceps.

Though the proportions were always important in Greek art, the appeal of the Greek sculptures eludes any explanation by proportion alone.

The statues of Apollo were thought to incarnate his living presence, and these representations of illusive imaginative reality had deep roots in the Minoan period, and in the beliefs of the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the bronze-age.

Just as the Greeks saw the mountains, forests, sea and rivers as inhabited by concrete beings, so nature in all of its manifestations possesses clear form, and the form of a work of art.

Spiritual life is incorporated in matter, when it is given artistic form. Just as in the arts the Greeks sought some reality behind appearances, so in mathematics they sought permanent principles which could be applied wherever the conditions were the same.

Artists and sculptors tried to find this ideal order in relation with mathematics, but they believed that this ideal order revealed itself not so much to the dispassionate intellect, as to the whole sentient self.

In the archaic pediments and friezes of the temples, the artists had a problem to fit a group of figures into an isosceles triangle with acute angles at the base.

The Siphnian Treasury in Delphi was one of the first Greek buildings utilizing the solution to put the dominating form in the middle, and to complete the descending scale of height with other figures sitting or kneeling.

The pediment shows the story of Heracles stealing Apollo's tripod that was strongly associated with his oracular inspiration.

Their two figures hold the centre. In the pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia , the single figure of Apollo is dominating the scene.

These representations rely on presenting scenes directly to the eye for their own visible sake. They care for the schematic arrangements of bodies in space, but only as parts in a larger whole.

While each scene has its own character and completeness it must fit into the general sequence to which it belongs.

In these archaic pediments the sculptors use empty intervals, to suggest a passage to and from a busy battlefield. The artists seem to have been dominated by geometrical pattern and order, and this was improved when classical art brought a greater freedom and economy.

Apollo as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a kithara as Apollo Citharoedus or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Sauroctonos types.

The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance through the 19th century.

The life-size so-called " Adonis " found in on the site of a villa suburbana near the Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle is identified as an Apollo by modern scholars.

In the late 2nd century CE floor mosaic from El Djem , Roman Thysdrus , he is identifiable as Apollo Helios by his effulgent halo , though now even a god's divine nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Empire.

Another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum , is in the museum at Sousse. Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature.

In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the Apollonian and Dionysian impulses where the former is concerned with imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity.

Friedrich Nietzsche argued that a fusion of the two was most desirable. Carl Jung 's Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional distance.

Charles Handy , in Gods of Management uses Greek gods as a metaphor to portray various types of organisational culture. Apollo represents a 'role' culture where order, reason, and bureaucracy prevail.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Greek god. This article is about the Greek and Roman god. For the spaceflight program, see Apollo program.

For other uses, see Apollo disambiguation. The translations were rendered into hexameter by the temple priests. Apollo is depicted as a beardless young man ephebe.

His attributes are the tripod the stool of prophecy , lyre, bow and arrows, laurel, hawk, raven or crow, swan, fawn, roe, snake, mouse, grasshopper, and griffin.

Apollo was paired with many women and a few men. It wasn't safe to resist his advances. When the seer Cassandra rejected him, he punished her by making it impossible for people to believe her prophecies.

When Daphne sought to reject Apollo, her father "helped" her by turning her into a laurel tree. He is a healing god, a power he transmitted to his son Asclepius.

Asclepius exploited his ability to heal by raising men from the dead. Zeus punished him by striking him with a fatal thunderbolt.

Apollo retaliated by killing the Cyclops , who had created the thunderbolt. Zeus punished his son Apollo by sentencing him to a year of servitude, which he spent as a herdsman for the mortal king Admetus.

Euripides ' tragedy tells the story of the reward Apollo paid Admetus.

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When the seer Cassandra rejected him, he punished her by making it impossible for people to believe her prophecies.

When Daphne sought to reject Apollo, her father "helped" her by turning her into a laurel tree. He is a healing god, a power he transmitted to his son Asclepius.

Asclepius exploited his ability to heal by raising men from the dead. Zeus punished him by striking him with a fatal thunderbolt.

Apollo retaliated by killing the Cyclops , who had created the thunderbolt. Zeus punished his son Apollo by sentencing him to a year of servitude, which he spent as a herdsman for the mortal king Admetus.

Euripides ' tragedy tells the story of the reward Apollo paid Admetus. In the first book of the "Iliad," he is angry with the Greeks for refusing to return the daughter of his priest Chryses.

To punish them, the god showers the Greeks with arrows of plague, possibly bubonic, since the plague-sending Apollo was associated with mice.

Apollo was also linked to the laurel wreath of victory. In one myth, Apollo was fated to a disastrous and unrequited love for Daphne.

Daphne metamorphosed into a laurel tree to avoid him. Leaves from the laurel tree were thereafter used to crown victors at the Pythian games.

Share Flipboard Email. Ancient History and Latin Expert. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. Updated December 03, ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience.

Chiron , the abandoned centaur , was fostered by Apollo, who instructed him in medicine, prophecy, archery and more. Chiron would later become a great teacher himself.

Asclepius in his childhood gained much knowledge pertaining to medicinal arts by his father. However, he was later entrusted to Chiron for further education.

Anius , Apollo's son by Rhoeo , was abandoned by his mother soon after his birth. Apollo brought him up and educated him in mantic arts.

Anius later became the priest of Apollo and the king of Delos. Iamus was the son of Apollo and Evadne. When Evadne went into labour, Apollo sent the Moirai to assist his lover.

After the child was born, Apollo sent snakes to feed the child some honey. When Iamus reached the age of education, Apollo took him to Olympia and taught him many arts, including the ability to understand and explain the languages of birds.

Idmon was educated by Apollo to be a seer. Even though he foresaw his death that would happen in his journey with the Argonauts , he embraced his destiny and died a brave death.

To commemorate his son's bravery, Apollo commanded Boetians to build a town around the tomb of the hero, and to honor him. Apollo adopted Carnus , the abandoned son of Zeus and Europa.

He reared the child with the help of his mother Leto and educated him to be a seer. When his son Melaneus reached the age of marriage, Apollo asked the princess Stratonice to be his son's bride and carried her away from her home when she agreed.

Apollo saved a shepherd boy name unknown from death in a large deep cave, by the means of vultures. To thank him, the shepherd built Apollo a temple under the name Vulturius.

Immediately after his birth, Apollo demanded a lyre and invented the paean , thus becoming the god of music. As the divine singer, he is the patron of poets, singers and musicians.

The invention of string music is attributed to him. Plato said that the innate ability of humans to take delight in music, rhythm and harmony is the gift of Apollo and the Muses.

For this reason, he was called Homopolon before the Homo was replaced by A. They are Apollo's sacred birds and acted as his vehicle during his travel to Hyperborea.

Among the Pythagoreans , the study of mathematics and music were connected to the worship of Apollo, their principal deity. They also believed that music was delegated to the same mathematical laws of harmony as the mechanics of the cosmos, evolving into an idea known as the music of the spheres.

Apollo appears as the companion of the Muses , and as Musagetes "leader of Muses" he leads them in dance. They spend their time on Parnassus , which is one of their sacred places.

Apollo is also the lover of the Muses and by them he became the father of famous musicians like Orpheus and Linus. Apollo is often found delighting the immortal gods with his songs and music on the lyre.

He is a frequent guest of the Bacchanalia , and many ancient ceramics depict him being at ease amidst the maenads and satyrs.

He was the victor in all those contests, but he tended to punish his opponents severely for their hubris.

The invention of lyre is attributed either to Hermes or to Apollo himself. Myths tell that the infant Hermes stole a number of Apollo's cows and took them to a cave in the woods near Pylos , covering their tracks.

In the cave, he found a tortoise and killed it, then removed the insides. He used one of the cow's intestines and the tortoise shell and made his lyre.

Upon discovering the theft, Apollo confronted Hermes and asked him to return his cattle. When Hermes acted innocent, Apollo took the matter to Zeus.

Zeus, having seen the events, sided with Apollo, and ordered Hermes to return the cattle. Hermes then began to play music on the lyre he had invented.

Apollo fell in love with the instrument and offered to exchange the cattle for the lyre. Hence, Apollo then became the master of the lyre.

According to other versions, Apollo had invented the lyre himself, whose strings he tore in repenting of the excess punishment he had given to Marsyas.

Hermes' lyre, therefore, would be a reinvention. Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo and to challenge the god of music to a contest.

The mountain-god Tmolus was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas , who happened to be present.

Then, Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. It was so beautiful that Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and everyone was pleased with the judgement.

Only Midas dissented and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo did not want to suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey.

Marsyas was a satyr who was punished by Apollo for his hubris. He had found an aulos on the ground, tossed away after being invented by Athena because it made her cheeks puffy.

Athena had also placed a curse upon the instrument, that whoever would pick it up would be severely punished. When Marsyas played the flute, everyone became frenzied with joy.

This led Marsyas to think that he was better than Apollo, and he challenged the god to a musical contest.

The contest was judged by the Muses , or the nymphs of Nysa. Athena was also present to witness the contest. Marsyas taunted Apollo for "wearing his hair long, for having a fair face and smooth body, for his skill in so many arts".

His body is fair from head to foot, his limbs shine bright, his tongue gives oracles, and he is equally eloquent in prose or verse, propose which you will.

What of his robes so fine in texture, so soft to the touch, aglow with purple? What of his lyre that flashes gold, gleams white with ivory, and shimmers with rainbow gems?

What of his song, so cunning and so sweet? Nay, all these allurements suit with naught save luxury.

To virtue they bring shame alone! The Muses and Athena sniggered at this comment. The contestants agreed to take turns displaying their skills and the rule was that the victor could "do whatever he wanted" to the loser.

According to one account, after the first round, they both were deemed equal by the Nysiads. But in the next round, Apollo decided to play on his lyre and add his melodious voice to his performance.

Marsyas argued against this, saying that Apollo would have an advantage and accused Apollo of cheating. But Apollo replied that since Marsyas played the flute, which needed air blown from the throat, it was similar to singing, and that either they both should get an equal chance to combine their skills or none of them should use their mouths at all.

The nymphs decided that Apollo's argument was just. Apollo then played his lyre and sang at the same time, mesmerising the audience.

Marsyas could not do this. Apollo was declared the winner and, angered with Marsyas' haughtiness and his accusations, decided to flay the satyr.

According to another account, Marsyas played his flute out of tune at one point and accepted his defeat. Out of shame, he assigned to himself the punishment of being skinned for a wine sack.

Marsyas could not do this with his instrument. So the Muses who were the judges declared Apollo the winner. Apollo hung Marsyas from a tree to flay him.

Apollo flayed the limbs of Marsyas alive in a cave near Celaenae in Phrygia for his hubris to challenge a god.

He then gave the rest of his body for proper burial [] and nailed Marsyas' flayed skin to a nearby pine-tree as a lesson to the others.

Marsyas' blood turned into the river Marsyas. But Apollo soon repented and being distressed at what he had done, he tore the strings of his lyre and threw it away.

The lyre was later discovered by the Muses and Apollo's sons Linus and Orpheus. The Muses fixed the middle string, Linus the string struck with the forefinger, and Orpheus the lowest string and the one next to it.

They took it back to Apollo, but the god, who had decided to stay away from music for a while, laid away both the lyre and the pipes at Delphi and joined Cybele in her wanderings to as far as Hyperborea.

Cinyras was a ruler of Cyprus , who was a friend of Agamemnon. Cinyras promised to assist Agamemnon in the Trojan war, but did not keep his promise.

Agamemnon cursed Cinyras. He invoked Apollo and asked the god to avenge the broken promise. Apollo then had a lyre -playing contest with Cinyras , and defeated him.

Either Cinyras committed suicide when he lost, or was killed by Apollo. Apollo functions as the patron and protector of sailors, one of the duties he shares with Poseidon.

In the myths, he is seen helping heroes who pray to him for safe journey. When Apollo spotted a ship of Cretan sailors that was caught in a storm, he quickly assumed the shape of a dolphin and guided their ship safely to Delphi.

When the Argonauts faced a terrible storm, Jason prayed to his patron, Apollo, to help them. Apollo used his bow and golden arrow to shed light upon an island, where the Argonauts soon took shelter.

This island was renamed " Anaphe ", which means "He revealed it". Apollo helped the Greek hero Diomedes , to escape from a great tempest during his journey homeward.

As a token of gratitude, Diomedes built a temple in honor of Apollo under the epithet Epibaterius "the embarker".

During the Trojan War, Odysseus came to the Trojan camp to return Chriseis, the daughter of Apollo's priest Chryses , and brought many offerings to Apollo.

Pleased with this, Apollo sent gentle breezes that helped Odysseus return safely to the Greek camp. Arion was a poet who was kidnapped by some sailors for the rich prizes he possessed.

Arion requested them to let him sing for the last time, to which the sailors consented. Arion began singing a song in praise of Apollo, seeking the god's help.

Consequently, numerous dolphins surrounded the ship and when Arion jumped into the water, the dolphins carried him away safely.

Once Hera , out of spite, aroused the Titans to war against Zeus and take away his throne. Accordingly, when the Titans tried to climb Mount Olympus , Zeus with the help of Apollo, Artemis and Athena , defeated them and cast them into tartarus.

Apollo played a pivotal role in the entire Trojan War. He sided with the Trojans, and sent a terrible plague to the Greek camp, which indirectly led to the conflict between Achilles and Agamemnon.

He killed the Greek heroes Patroclus , Achilles, and numerous Greek soldiers. He also helped many Trojan heroes, the most important one being Hector.

After the end of the war, Apollo and Poseidon together cleaned the remains of the city and the camps.

A war broke out between the Brygoi and the Thesprotians, who had the support of Odysseus. The gods Athena and Ares came to the battlefield and took sides.

Athena helped the hero Odysseus while Ares fought alongside of the Brygoi. When Odysseus lost, Athena and Ares came into a direct duel. To stop the battling gods and the terror created by their battle, Apollo intervened and stopped the duel between them.

When Zeus suggested that Dionysus defeat the Indians in order to earn a place among the gods, Dionysus declared war against the Indians and travelled to India along with his army of Bacchantes and satyrs.

Among the warriors was Aristaeus , Apollo's son. Apollo armed his son with his own hands and gave him a bow and arrows and fitted a strong shield to his arm.

During the war between the sons of Oedipus , Apollo favored Amphiaraus , a seer and one of the leaders in the war. Though saddened that the seer was fated to be doomed in the war, Apollo made Amphiaraus' last hours glorious by "lighting his shield and his helm with starry gleam".

When Hypseus tried to kill the hero by a spear, Apollo directed the spear towards the charioteer of Amphiaraus instead. Then Apollo himself replaced the charioteer and took the reins in his hands.

He deflected many spears and arrows away them. At last when the moment of departure came, Apollo expressed his grief with tears in his eyes and bid farewell to Amphiaraus, who was soon engulfed by the Earth.

During the gigantomachy , Apollo killed the giant Ephialtes by shooting him in his eyes. He also killed Porphyrion , the king of giants, using his bow and arrows.

Otis and Ephialtes, the twin giants were together called the Aloadae. These giants are said to have grown every year by one cubit in breadth and three cubits in height.

Olympus by piling up mountains. They also threatened to change land into sea and sea into land. Some say they even dared to seek the hand of Hera and Artemis in marriage.

Angered by this, Apollo killed them by shooting arrows at them. He sent a deer between them. As they tried to kill it with their javelins, they accidentally stabbed each other and died.

Phorbas was a savage giant king of Phlegyas who was described as having swine like features. He wished to plunder Delphi for its wealth.

He seized the roads to Delphi and started harassing the pilgrims. He captured the old people and children and sent them to his army to hold them for ransom.

And he challenged the young and sturdy men to a match of boxing, only to cut their heads off when they would get defeated by him.

He hung the chopped off heads to an oak tree. Finally, Apollo came to put an end to this cruelty. He entered a boxing contest with Phorbas and killed him with a single blow.

In the first Olympic games , Apollo defeated Ares and became the victor in wrestling. He outran Hermes in the race and won first place.

Apollo divides months into summer and winter. During his absence, Delphi was under the care of Dionysus , and no prophecies were given during winters.

Molpadia and Parthenos were the sisters of Rhoeo , a former lover of Apollo. One day, they were put in charge of watching their father's ancestral wine jar but they fell asleep while performing this duty.

While they were asleep, the wine jar was broken by the swines their family kept. When the sisters woke up and saw what had happened, they threw themselves off a cliff in fear of their father's wrath.

Apollo, who was passing by, caught them and carried them to two different cities in Chersonesus, Molpadia to Castabus and Parthenos to Bubastus.

He turned them into goddesses and they both received divine honors. Molpadia's name was changed to Hemithea upon her deification.

Prometheus was the titan who was punished by Zeus for stealing fire. He was bound to a rock, where each day an eagle was sent to eat Prometheus' liver, which would then grow back overnight to be eaten again the next day.

Seeing his plight, Apollo pleaded Zeus to release the kind Titan, while Artemis and Leto stood behind him with tears in their eyes. Zeus, moved by Apollo's words and the tears of the goddesses, finally sent Heracles to free Prometheus.

Leukatas was believed to be a white colored rock jutting out from the island of Leukas into the sea. It was present in the sanctuary of Apollo Leukates.

A leap from this rock was believed to have put an end to the longings of love. Once, Aphrodite fell deeply in love with Adonis , a young man of great beauty who was later accidentally killed by a boar.

Heartbroken, Aphrodite wandered looking for the rock of Leukas. When she reached the sanctuary of Apollo in Argos, she confided in him her love and sorrow.

Apollo then brought her to the rock of Leukas and asked her to throw herself from the top of the rock. She did so and was freed from her love.

When she sought for the reason behind this, Apollo told her that Zeus, before taking another lover, would sit on this rock to free himself from his love to Hera.

Another tale relates that a man named Nireus, who fell in love with the cult statue of Athena, came to the rock and jumped in order relieve himself.

After jumping, he fell into the net of a fisherman in which, when he was pulled out, he found a box filled with gold. He fought with the fisherman and took the gold, but Apollo appeared to him in the night in a dream and warned him not to appropriate gold which belonged to others.

It was an ancestral custom among the Leukadians to fling a criminal from this rock every year at the sacrifice performed in honor of Apollo for the sake of averting evil.

However, a number of men would be stationed all around below rock to catch the criminal and take him out of the borders in order to exile him from the island.

Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology. Daphne was a nymph whose parentage varies.

She scorned Apollo's advances and ran away from him. When Apollo chased her in order to persuade her, she changed herself into a laurel tree.

According to other versions, she cried for help during the chase, and Gaea helped her by taking her in and placing a laurel tree in her place.

The myth explains the origin of the laurel and connection of Apollo with the laurel and its leaves, which his priestess employed at Delphi.

The leaves became the symbol of victory and laurel wreaths were given to the victors of the Pythian games. Apollo is said to have been the lover of all nine Muses , and not being able to choose one of them, decided to remain unwed.

Cyrene , was a Thessalian princess whom Apollo loved. In her honor, he built the city Cyrene and made her its ruler.

She was later granted longevity by Apollo who turned her into a nymph. The couple had two sons, Aristaeus , and Idmon. Evadne was a nymph daughter of Poseidon and a lover of Apollo.

She bore him a son, Iamos. During the time of the childbirth, Apollo sent Eileithyia , the goddess of childbirth to assist her. Rhoeo , a princess of the island of Naxos was loved by Apollo.

Out of affection for her, Apollo turned her sisters into goddesses. On the island Delos she bore Apollo a son named Anius. Not wanting to have the child, she entrusted the infant to Apollo and left.

Apollo raised and educated the child on his own. Ourea, a daughter of Poseidon , fell in love with Apollo when he and Poseidon were serving the Trojan king Laomedon.

They both united on the day the walls of Troy were built. Ileus was very dear to Apollo. Thero , daughter of Phylas , a maiden as beautiful as the moonbeams, was loved by the radiant Apollo, and she loved him in return.

By their union, she became mother of Chaeron, who was famed as "the tamer of horses". He later built the city Chaeronea.

Hyrie or Thyrie was the mother of Cycnus. Apollo turned both the mother and son into swans when they jumped into a lake and tried to kill themselves.

An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilleus , and Apollo avenged his death by killing Achilles.

After the sack of Troy, Hecuba was taken to Lycia by Apollo. Coronis , was daughter of Phlegyas , King of the Lapiths.

While pregnant with Asclepius , Coronis fell in love with Ischys , son of Elatus and slept with him. When Apollo found out about her infidelity through his prophetic powers, he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis.

Apollo rescued the baby by cutting open Koronis' belly and gave it to the centaur Chiron to raise. He used his powers to conceal her pregnancy from her father.

Later, when Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi , where he was raised by a priestess.

Hyacinth or Hyacinthus was one of Apollo's favorite lovers. The pair was practicing throwing the discus when a discus thrown by Apollo was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly.

Apollo is said to be filled with grief. The festival Hyacinthia was a national celebration of Sparta, which commemorated the death and rebirth of Hyacinthus.

Another male lover was Cyparissus , a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth.

Cyparissus was so saddened by its death that he asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk.

Admetus , the king of Pherae, was also Apollo's lover. The romantic nature of their relationship was first described by Callimachus of Alexandria, who wrote that Apollo was "fired with love" for Admetus.

He would also make cheese and serve it to Admetus. His domestic actions caused embarrassment to his family. Oh how often his sister Diana blushed at meeting her brother as he carried a young calf through the fields!

When Admetus wanted to marry princess Alcestis , Apollo provided a chariot pulled by a lion and a boar he had tamed.

This satisfied Alcestis' father and he let Admetus marry his daughter. Further, Apollo saved the king from Artemis' wrath and also convinced the Moirai to postpone Admetus' death once.

Branchus , a shepherd, one day came across Apollo in the woods. Captivated by the god's beauty, he kissed Apollo.

Apollo requited his affections and wanting to reward him, bestowed prophetic skills on him. His descendants, the Branchides, were an influential clan of prophets.

Apollo sired many children, from mortal women and nymphs as well as the goddesses. His children grew up to be physicians, musicians, poets, seers or archers.

Many of his sons founded new cities and became kings. They were all usually very beautiful. Asclepius is the most famous son of Apollo. His skills as a physician surpassed that of Apollo's.

Zeus killed him for bringing back the dead, but upon Apollo's request, he was resurrected as a god. Aristaeus was placed under the care of Chiron after his birth.

He became the god of beekeeping, cheese making, animal husbandry and more. He was ultimately given immortality for the benefits he bestowed upon the humanity.

The Corybantes were spear-clashing, dancing demigods. The sons of Apollo who participated in the Trojan War include the Trojan princes Hector and Troilus , as well as Tenes , the king of Tenedos , all three of whom were killed by Achilles over the course of the war.

Apollo fathered 3 daughters, Apollonis , Borysthenis and Cephisso , who formed a group of minor Muses, the "Musa Apollonides".

They were nicknamed Nete, Mese and Hypate after the highest, middle and lowest strings of his lyre. Anius , Pythaeus and Ismenus lived as high priests.

Most of them were trained by Apollo himself. He also had a son named Chrysorrhoas who was a mechanic artist. Apollo turned Parthenos into a constellation after her early death.

Additionally, Apollo fostered and educated Chiron , the centaur who later became the greatest teacher and educated many demigods, including Apollo's sons.

Apollo also fostered Carnus , the son of Zeus and Europa. Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.

Sinope , a nymph, was approached by the amorous Apollo. She made him promise that he would grant to her whatever she would ask for, and then cleverly asked him to let her stay a virgin.

Apollo kept his promise and went back. Bolina was admired by Apollo but she refused him and jumped into the sea.

To avoid her death, Apollo turned her into a nymph and let her go. Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt.

Parnassos , which was then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses.

Cassandra , was a daughter of Hecuba and Priam. Apollo wished to court her. Cassandra promised to return his love on one condition - he should give her the power to see the future.

Apollo fulfilled her wish, but she went back on her word and rejected him soon after. Angered that she broke her promise, Apollo cursed her that even though she would see the future, no one would ever believe her prophecies.

Hestia , the goddess of the hearth, rejected both Apollo's and Poseidon's marriage proposals and swore that she would always stay unmarried.

Artemis as the sister of Apollo, is thea apollousa , that is, she as a female divinity represented the same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity.

In the pre-Hellenic period, their relationship was described as the one between husband and wife, and there seems to have been a tradition which actually described Artemis as the wife of Apollo.

However, this relationship was never sexual but spiritual, [] which is why they both are seen being unmarried in the Hellenic period.

Artemis, like her brother, is armed with a bow and arrows. She is the cause of sudden deaths of women.

She also is the protector of the young, especially girls. Though she has nothing to do with oracles, music or poetry, she sometimes led the female chorus on Olympus while Apollo sang.

Artemis Daphnaia had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi. Hecate , the goddess of witchcraft and magic, is the chthonic counterpart of Apollo.

They both are cousins, since their mothers - Leto and Asteria - are sisters. One of Apollo's epithets, Hecatos , is the masculine form of Hecate, and both the names mean "working from afar".

While Apollo presided over the prophetic powers and magic of light and heaven, Hecate presided over the prophetic powers and magic of night and chthonian darkness.

Hecate is the goddess of crossroads and Apollo is the god and protector of streets. The oldest evidence found for Hecate's worship is at Apollo's temple in Miletos.

There, Hecate was taken to be Apollo's sister counterpart in the absence of Artemis. As a deity of knowledge and great power, Apollo was seen being the male counterpart of Athena.

Being Zeus' favorite children, they were given more powers and duties. Apollo and Athena often took up the role as protectors of cities, and were patrons of some of the important cities.

Athena was the principle goddess of Athens , Apollo was the principle god of Sparta. As patrons of arts, Apollo and Athena were companions of the Muses , the former a much more frequent companion than the latter.

In the Trojan war, as Zeus' executive, Apollo is seen holding the aegis like Athena usually does. In Aeschylus ' Oresteia trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia to proceed forward with the Trojan war.

Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes , is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus , her lover.

Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes or Furies female personifications of vengeance.

Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage.

They invade his temple, and he drives them away. He says that the matter should be brought before Athena.

Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's supplicant. Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules in favor of Apollo.

The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks. On the occasion of a pestilence in the s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".

After the battle of Actium , which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.

The chief Apollonian festival was the Pythian Games held every four years at Delphi and was one of the four great Panhellenic Games.

Also of major importance was the Delia held every four years on Delos. Athenian annual festivals included the Boedromia , Metageitnia , [] Pyanepsia , and Thargelia.

Spartan annual festivals were the Carneia and the Hyacinthia. Thebes every nine years held the Daphnephoria.

Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara an advanced version of the common lyre , the plectrum and the sword.

Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod , representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi.

The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games. The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos.

Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves , dolphins, roe deer , swans , cicadas symbolizing music and song , ravens , hawks , crows Apollo had hawks and crows as his messengers , [] snakes referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy , mice and griffins , mythical eagle—lion hybrids of Eastern origin.

Homer and Porphyry wrote that Apollo had a hawk as his messenger. As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, — BCE.

According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention an Asia Minor god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars.

In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves possibly a folk etymology.

In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus , god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder.

The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo at winter left for Hyperborea , he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus.

This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony.

Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance. Greek art puts into Apollo the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined.

The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought.

The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity. The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment.

The statues of Apollo embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world. The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions from the almost static formal Kouros type in early archaic period , to the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late archaic period.

In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a method created by Polykleitos.

Finally Praxiteles seems to be released from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a mixture of naturalism with stylization.

The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy of Thales to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras.

Thales searched for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older animism.

This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified forms. Pythagoras believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.

His ideas had a great influence on post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the esthetic perfection.

In classical Greece, Anaxagoras asserted that a divine reason mind gave order to the seeds of the universe, and Plato extended the Greek belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms ideai , "ideas".

The forms on Earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas. The artists in Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a mixture of naturalism with stylization.

The Greek sculptors considered the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the sensible with the intellectual.

Kouros male youth is the modern term given to those representations of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in Greece.

This type served certain religious needs and was first proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo. The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason.

The sculptors had a clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body, dignity, and youthful happiness.

When they tried to depict the most abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the unchanging gods.

Apollo was the immortal god of ideal balance and order. In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period — BC , the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as lifeless masses, but as being full of life.

The Greeks maintained, until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the statues are in some sense alive. This embodies the belief that the image was somehow the god or man himself.

The statue is the "thing in itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an intellectual eternity. According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon master was named Daedalus , and in his statues the limbs were freed from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move.

It is considered that he created also the New York kouros , which is the oldest fully preserved statue of Kouros type, and seems to be the incarnation of the god himself.

The animistic idea as the representation of the imaginative reality, is sanctified in the Homeric poems and in Greek myths, in stories of the god Hephaestus Phaistos and the mythic Daedalus the builder of the labyrinth that made images which moved of their own accord.

This kind of art goes back to the Minoan period, when its main theme was the representation of motion in a specific moment. The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo, may be two figures from the Ionic sanctuary on the island of Delos.

Such statues were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these were found at the sanctuaries of Apollo with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoios , Boeotia alone.

Ranking from the very few bronzes survived to us is the masterpiece bronze Piraeus Apollo. It was found in Piraeus , the harbour of Athens.

The statue originally held the bow in its left hand, and a cup of pouring libation in its right hand.

It probably comes from north-eastern Peloponnesus. The emphasis is given in anatomy, and it is one of the first attempts to represent a kind of motion, and beauty relative to proportions, which appear mostly in post-Archaic art.

The statue throws some light on an artistic centre which, with an independently developed harder, simpler and heavier style, restricts Ionian influence in Athens.

Finally, this is the germ from which the art of Polykleitos was to grow two or three generations later. At the beginning of the Classical period , it was considered that beauty in visible things as in everything else, consisted of symmetry and proportions.

The artists tried also to represent motion in a specific moment Myron , which may be considered as the reappearance of the dormant Minoan element.

The Greek sculptors tried to clarify it by looking for mathematical proportions, just as they sought some reality behind appearances.

Polykleitos in his Canon wrote that beauty consists in the proportion not of the elements materials , but of the parts, that is the interrelation of parts with one another and with the whole.

It seems that he was influenced by the theories of Pythagoras. The famous Apollo of Mantua and its variants are early forms of the Apollo Citharoedus statue type, in which the god holds the cithara in his left arm.

The type is represented by neo-Attic Imperial Roman copies of the late 1st or early 2nd century, modelled upon a supposed Greek bronze original made in the second quarter of the 5th century BCE, in a style similar to works of Polykleitos but more archaic.

The Apollo held the cythara against his extended left arm, of which in the Louvre example, a fragment of one twisting scrolling horn upright remains against his biceps.

Though the proportions were always important in Greek art, the appeal of the Greek sculptures eludes any explanation by proportion alone.

The statues of Apollo were thought to incarnate his living presence, and these representations of illusive imaginative reality had deep roots in the Minoan period, and in the beliefs of the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the bronze-age.

Just as the Greeks saw the mountains, forests, sea and rivers as inhabited by concrete beings, so nature in all of its manifestations possesses clear form, and the form of a work of art.

Spiritual life is incorporated in matter, when it is given artistic form. Just as in the arts the Greeks sought some reality behind appearances, so in mathematics they sought permanent principles which could be applied wherever the conditions were the same.

Artists and sculptors tried to find this ideal order in relation with mathematics, but they believed that this ideal order revealed itself not so much to the dispassionate intellect, as to the whole sentient self.

In the archaic pediments and friezes of the temples, the artists had a problem to fit a group of figures into an isosceles triangle with acute angles at the base.

The Siphnian Treasury in Delphi was one of the first Greek buildings utilizing the solution to put the dominating form in the middle, and to complete the descending scale of height with other figures sitting or kneeling.

The pediment shows the story of Heracles stealing Apollo's tripod that was strongly associated with his oracular inspiration. Their two figures hold the centre.

In the pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia , the single figure of Apollo is dominating the scene. These representations rely on presenting scenes directly to the eye for their own visible sake.

They care for the schematic arrangements of bodies in space, but only as parts in a larger whole. While each scene has its own character and completeness it must fit into the general sequence to which it belongs.

In these archaic pediments the sculptors use empty intervals, to suggest a passage to and from a busy battlefield. The artists seem to have been dominated by geometrical pattern and order, and this was improved when classical art brought a greater freedom and economy.

Apollo as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a kithara as Apollo Citharoedus or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Sauroctonos types.

The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance through the 19th century.

The life-size so-called " Adonis " found in on the site of a villa suburbana near the Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle is identified as an Apollo by modern scholars.

In the late 2nd century CE floor mosaic from El Djem , Roman Thysdrus , he is identifiable as Apollo Helios by his effulgent halo , though now even a god's divine nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Empire.

Another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum , is in the museum at Sousse. Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature.

In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the Apollonian and Dionysian impulses where the former is concerned with imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity.

Friedrich Nietzsche argued that a fusion of the two was most desirable. Carl Jung 's Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional distance.

Charles Handy , in Gods of Management uses Greek gods as a metaphor to portray various types of organisational culture.

Apollo represents a 'role' culture where order, reason, and bureaucracy prevail. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Greek god. This article is about the Greek and Roman god. For the spaceflight program, see Apollo program. For other uses, see Apollo disambiguation.

For other uses, see Phoebus disambiguation. God of oracles, healing, archery, music and arts, sunlight, knowledge, herds and flocks, and protection of the young.

Apollo Belvedere , c. Sacred Places. Sacred Islands. Sacred Mountains. Rites of passage. Hellenistic philosophy. Other Topics.

Main articles: Ancient Greek temple and Roman temple. Main article: Greek mythology. Main article: Apollo and Daphne.

Ancient Greece portal Myths portal Religion portal. Austin: University of Texas Press. Hoffmann, Yalouris , no.

Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Internationale Archäologie in German. Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Symposium, Tagung, Kongress. Band Kult ur kontakte.

Akten des Table Ronde in Mainz vom März Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Volume IV—V.

Approaches to Iconology. Leiden, E.

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